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Epilepsy

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects about 50 million people worldwide. Epilepsy can be a condition that is characterized by sudden and repeated seizures. Epilepsy is a manifestation of brain disorders with a variety of causes with very distinctive symptoms of spasticity resulting from the excessive discharge of electrical charge of brain neurons.

Symptoms

  • Temporary confusion
  • Uncontrolled jerking motion of arm and leg
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Psychic symptoms such as fear, anxiety, or deja vu

This symptom depends on the type of seizures. Most cases of people with epilepsy have similar seizures from episode to episode.

Seek medical help if any of the following occur:

  • The seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes
  • Breathing or consciousness does not return after the seizure stops
  • The next bite immediately followed
  • High fever
  • Experiencing fatigue
  • Are pregnant
  • Suffer from diabetes
  • Self-injury while seizure

 

Cause

Epilepsy has no identifiable cause, but others can be identified by:

  • Genetic Factors
  • Head injury, head trauma from car accidents or other traumatic injuries
  • Brain condition, which is a brain condition that causes brain damage such as a brain tumor or stroke.
  • Infectious diseases, infectious diseases such as meningitis, AIDS, or viral encephalitis.
  • Prenatal, before birth, babies are very sensitive to brain damage that can be caused by an infection of the mother, lack of nutrients or lack of oxygen. This brain damage can cause epilepsy and movement disorders that affect muscle.
  • Developmental disorders, epilepsy can sometimes be associated with developmental disorders such as autism and neurofibromatosis.

Action

The surgical action in this epileptic patient is aimed at lifting the seizure-producing part of the source. This surgery will work well if convulsions come from the same area in the brain. Actions that can be given to patients with epilepsy are:

  • Temporal lobectomy, is a common practice for people with temporal lobe epilepsy. This action is done by removing part of the anterior temporal lobe together with the amygdala and the hippocampus. Temporal lobectomy can decrease seizures significantly by 70-80%, although this action may have an effect on memory and speech memory.
  • Cortical excision is the second most common type of epilepsy surgery. This action aims to remove the outer layer (cortex) of the brain in the area of ​​the seizure. Approximately 40% to 50% of patients have better seizure control after performing this action.
  • Hemispherectomy involves removal of the outer layer of the brain (cortex) and the anterior temporal lobe in one half of the brain. This is usually done in children with difficulty-treated seizures, having a damaged hemisphere, and experiencing weakness on one side of the body. Surgery can control the seizures of nearly 80% of these patients. Patients often improve cognitive function, attention span, and behavior.

Palliative procedures are performed when the focus of the seizure can not be determined or overlaps areas of the brain that are important for movement, speech, or vision.

 

  • Corpus callosotomy is performed to prevent the spread of generalized seizures from one side of the brain to the other by releasing the nerve fibers in the corpus callosum. During surgery, two thirds of anterior corpus callosum is deposited. Sometimes, a second operation is performed to cut a posterior third if the patient does not improve. This operation is not curative. Instead, this action prevents spreading and reduces seizure levels. Some patients develop termination syndrome after having complete sexual intercourse. They may have left-right confusion with motor problems, apathy, or mutism.
  • Multiple subpial transpection is an action performed by making a small incision in the brain to interrupt the spread of a seizure impulse. This technique is used when the focus of the seizure is located in a vital area that can not be removed. It can be used alone or in combination with lobectomy.
  • Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an action involving implantation of a device that generates electrical signals to prevent seizures. VNS is similar to a pacemaker. A wire (lead) is wound around the vagus nerve in the neck. The cable is connected to a generator battery that is implanted under the skin near the collarbone. The generator is programmed to generate intermittent electrical signals that run along the vagus nerve to the brain. In addition, some patients may switch on the device with a magnet while feeling a warning (aura) that will soon be seized. VNS is not a cure for epilepsy. This procedure is for those who are not candidates for potentially curative brain surgery. VNS reduces the seizure frequency by about 30% (similar to newer AED results). Common side effects are tingling sensations in the neck and light hoarseness in sound, both occur only when stimulation.

 

What will happen after the operation?

After performing surgery and waking up, you will be treated in an ICU room, after surgery you will feel headache, nausea and vomiting. Once you recover you will return to the nursing home for one to two days.

Discomfort to be felt:

     

  • After performing a craniotomy action, you will feel a headache, the pain after this operation can be reduced by the consumption of narcotic drugs within a certain period of time. In addition, the use of these drugs can also cause constipation, so multiply consume water and foods that contain lots of high fiber, laxatives (dulcolax, senokot, milk, and foods containing magnesia).
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  • Ask your surgeon before taking any anti-inflammatory nonsteroid medications such as aspirin, ibuprofen, advil, motrin, nuprin, naproxen sodium, and aleve. This is because these drugs can cause bleeding and interfere with bone recovery.

Abstinence

     

  • Must not drive a car until it is discussed with a neurosurgeon and avoid sitting too long.
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  • Avoid lifting heavy items including lifting a small child
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  • Avoid housework including gardening, cutting, vacuuming, ironing, washing dishes, and washing clothes with a washing machine.
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  • Avoid drinking alcohol

Activity

     

  • Periodically, your condition will return to normal, but fatigue will remain.
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  • Stretch your back neck slowly.
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  • Begin learning to walk slowly and increase the distance, and discuss with your surgeon to follow a therapy that can increase your activity.

Call a Doctor If you feel something like the following:

     

  • If you have a fever of up to 38 ° C
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  • The emergence of infection in the incisory areas, such as the appearance of redness, bengakak, pain.
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  • If you are using anti-convulsive medications and cause drowsiness, imbalance, or rashes.
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  • Reduced vigilance, drowsiness, weakness of the arm or leg, headache, vomiting, or severe neck pain that can lower your chin to the chest.

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